Prostate Cancer

WARNING!!!  This sample paper serves multiple courses, to illustrate the reference citation style.  It does not serve as a model of the sections of the paper to include for all classes.  See the assignment description for a specific course to determine the sections to be included in you paper.

What Is It?
     Cancer of the prostate is the second most common cancer (after skin cancer) found in American men.1-3 About 184,500 new cases were detected in 1998.3 The incidence of this cancer appears to be on the rise, but the statistics reflect not so much an increase in occurrence as an increase in early discovery through the more common use of screening tests. The risk for developing prostate cancer is about 30 percent but risk of dying from the disease is only about 3 percent.2 The cancer is age related, with risk increasing from age 50 onward.2 It occurs more commonly among African-American men than those of other ethnic groups. It is estimated that in 1998, prostate cancer claimed 39,200 lives in the United States.4
    Cancerous cells usually arise in the outer regions (peripheral zone) of the gland, where they can often be felt on digital rectal exam by a doctor. Both normal and cancerous prostate tissues produce prostate-specific antigen (PSA) that passes into the blood. When the amounts of this prostate marker increase in the blood, it can signal the presence of a cancer.6  The chances of survival for patients with prostate cancer are good. Only one out of ten men with prostate cancer die from the disorder.5,9

Causes
    Fill in your description of causes here.

Symptoms
Common (early stage): no symptoms.2
Less common (later stages): weight loss; bone pain; urinary retention.1

Treatment
     If  prostate cancer is suspected, because of elevated levels of PSA in the blood or an abnormal digital rectal exam, the next step is often the transrectal ultrasound and biopsy of the abnormal area to verify the presence of cancerous cells and to grade the cancer.  The extent of spread will guide treatment recommendations.5,6
     Potential treatments include the following:

How I Would Work With A Person With Such A Disorder
     Fill in your description here.  See sample in homocysteine sample paper.
 
 

References

  1. Campbell, M. J., McComas, A. J., & Petito, F. (1973). Physiological changes in ageing muscles. Journal of Neurology Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, 36, 174-182.
  2. Capaday, C. (1997). Neurophysiological methods for studies of the motor system in freely moving human subjects. Journal of Neuroscience Methods, 74, 201-218.
  3. Casabona, A., Polizzi, M. C., & Perciavalle, V. (1990). Differences in H-reflex between athletes trained for explosive contractions and non-trained subjects. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 61, 26-32.
  4. Delwaide, P. J. (1973). Human monosynaptic reflexes and presynaptic inhibition. An interpretation of spastic hyperreflexia. In J. E. Desmedt (Ed.), New developments in electromyography and clinical neurophysiology: Vol. 3 (pp. 508-522) Basel, Switzerland: Karger.
  5. deVries, H. A., Wiswell, R. A., Romero, G. T., & Heckathorne, E. (1985). Changes with age in monosynaptic reflexes elicited by mechanical and electrical stimulation. American Journal of Physical Medicine, 64, 71-81.
  6. Dietz, V., Schmidtbleicher, D., & Noth, J. (1979). Neuronal mechanisms of human locomotion. Journal of Neurophysiology, 42, 1212-1222.
  7. Eke-Okoro, S. T. (1982). The H-reflex studied in the presence of alcohol, aspirin, caffeine, force and fatigue. Electromyography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 22, 579-589.
  8. Faist, M., Dietz, V., & Pierrot-Deseilligny, E. (1996). Modulation, probably presynaptic in origin, of monosynaptic Ia excitation during human gait. Experimental Brain Research, 109, 441-449.
  9. Fisher, M. A. (1992). AAEM Minimonograph #13: H reflexes and F waves: Physiology and clinical  indications. Muscle and Nerve, 15, 1223-1233.
  10. Goldberg, J., Sullivan, S. J., & Seaborne, D. E. (1992). The effect of two intensities of massage on H-reflex amplitude. Physical Therapy, 72, 449-457.