WARNING!!! This sample paper serves
multiple courses, to illustrate the reference citation style. It does not
serve as a model of the sections of the paper to include for all classes.
See the assignment description for a specific course to determine the sections
to be included in you paper.
What Is It?
Cancer of the prostate is the second most
common cancer (after skin cancer) found in American men.1-3
About 184,500 new cases were detected in 1998.3 The incidence
of this cancer appears to be on the rise, but the statistics reflect not
so much an increase in occurrence as an increase in early discovery through
the more common use of screening tests. The risk for developing prostate
cancer is about 30 percent but risk of dying from the disease is only about
3 percent.2 The cancer is age related, with risk increasing
from age 50 onward.2 It occurs more commonly among African-American
men than those of other ethnic groups. It is estimated that in 1998, prostate
cancer claimed 39,200 lives in the United States.4
Cancerous cells usually arise in the outer regions
(peripheral zone) of the gland, where they can often be felt on digital
rectal exam by a doctor. Both normal and cancerous prostate tissues produce
prostate-specific antigen (PSA) that passes into the blood. When the amounts
of this prostate marker increase in the blood, it can signal the presence
of a cancer.6 The chances of survival for patients with
prostate cancer are good. Only one out of ten men with prostate cancer
die from the disorder.5,9
Fill in your description of causes here.
Common (early stage): no symptoms.2
Less common (later stages): weight loss; bone pain; urinary retention.1
If prostate cancer is suspected, because
of elevated levels of PSA in the blood or an abnormal digital rectal exam,
the next step is often the transrectal ultrasound and biopsy of the abnormal
area to verify the presence of cancerous cells and to grade the cancer.
The extent of spread will guide treatment recommendations.5,6
Potential treatments include the following:
How I Would Work With A Person With Such A Disorder
Radical prostatectomy. The prostate gland, seminal vesicles, and part of
the vas deferens are completely removed. Refinements to the procedure now
allow most men to maintain urinary continence after surgery and to preserve
erection for many.5,8
Radiation (X-ray) therapy, by an X-ray beam directed from the outside or
by radioactive "seeds" implanted into the gland. The chief advantage to
this approach is that it minimizes the risk of incontinence and may lessen
Hormonal therapy involves blocking or antagonizing the action of testosterone.
Potential side effects include hot flashes, decreased sex drive, impotence
and osteoporosis.2,6 Types of therapy include:
Medications that mimic LH releasing hormone, thereby reducing testosterone
Medications that block the attachment of testosterone to receptors in the
Removal of the testicles (orchiectomy). Because most testosterone is produced
in the testicles, removal of the testicles is the most effective treatment
Medications that interfere with production of testosterone in the adrenal
glands (the adrenal glands produce a small amount of testosterone).3
Fill in your description here. See sample
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