Plagiarism
WWU Bulletin Appendix D:
Academic Dishonesty Policy and Procedure

Defines Plagiarism:
“... presenting as one’s own in whole or in part the argument, language, creations, conclusions, or scientific data of another without explicit acknowledgment.”

The goal of citations and quotations is to acknowledge the source of ideas and wording in your writing.

Citations:
•  ideas, conclusions, scientific data come from that source
•  writing is your own

Quotations:
•  ideas, conclusions, scientific data come from that source
•  writing is from that source as well

A lack of citations and quotations:
•  ideas are yours
•  writing is yours
 
 

 
Citations and Plagiarism
 Instead of focusing on the creation of memories in therapy, we want to end by discussing memory creation in other settings.  Memory construction in response to social demands is likely a common activity.  Remembering is often a social activity in which people exchange information and evaluations, and come to some agreement about the past (Edwards & Middleton, 1986a, b; Edwards, Potter, & Middleton, 1992; Hyman 1994).  These discussions are much more likely to take place with work associates, friends, and family members than with therapists.  In this sense, life is an ongoing misinformation experiment -- an event occurs and then a person receives additional information about the event (some of it possibly erroneous) from conversation partners.  Sometimes that information will become incorporated into the person’s memory of the event.  From this perspective many everyday autobiographical memories will include some small errors and some will include large errors.

Hyman, I. E., Jr., & Pentland, J.  (1996).  The role of mental imagery in the creation of false childhood memories.  Journal of Memory and Language, 35, 101-117.  (paragraph from p. 114)

OK uses:

Hyman and Pentland (1996) argued that the creation of false memories is a common response to memory conversations.

Hyman and Pentland (1996) stated that “life is an ongoing misinformation experiment” (p. 114) in which people create false memories in response to memory conversations.
    (It is ok to quote, but generally not preferred.  Hard to integrate into your writing flow and psychology articles are generally not that well written.)

Plagiarism:

Life is an ongoing misinformation experiment because an event occurs, a person receives additional information about the event from conversation partners and sometimes that information becomes incorporated into the person’s memory of the event.
(large pieces are quoted without indicating that this is a quote or giving source -- implies your wording and ideas)

Life is an ongoing misinformation experiment because an event occurs, a person receives additional information about the event from conversation partners and sometimes that information becomes incorporated into the person’s memory of the event (Hyman & Pentland, 1996).
 (quoted without indicating that this is a quote -- implies your wording)

Hyman and Pentland (1996) stated that life is an ongoing misinformation experiment in which people create false memories in response to memory conversations.
 (quoted without indicating that this is a quote -- implies your wording)